The Illustrated London News reported on 5 July 1919 that three representatives had come to ‘present gifts and a friendly address from the Empress of Abyssinia and the Heir-Apparent, Ras Tafari, to their Majesties the King George V and Queen Mary, congratulating them on the victorious issue of the war, and reaffirming Abyssinian friendship with this country’. One of the gifts was this elaborate gilt-bronze pierced Abyssinian royal headdress encrusted with African origin stones. At the front are two ‘Lions of Judah’ crowned with an Ethiopian royal crown and flanking a processional cross. The ‘Lions of Judah’ were a symbol of Ethiopian princes and a reference to their Solomonic dynasty. The bust in profile mounted above the crowned lions is that of the Ethiopian Emperor Menelik II (1844-1913).


贈り物の1つは、アフリカ起源の石がちりばめられた、この精巧な金銅のアビシニアン王室の宝冠でした。 正面には、エチオピアの王冠を被った二頭のユダのライオン、隣接して十字架があります。 「ユダのライオン」は、エチオピア王子の象徴であり、ソロモン朝への言及でした。 戴冠したライオンの上に取り付けられた横顔の胸像は、エチオピア皇帝メネリク2世(1844-1913)のものです。








Zewditu (Ge'ez: ዘውዲቱ Zäwditu), also spelled Zeoditu or Zawditu or Zauditu; born Askala Maryam (29 April 1876 – 2 April 1930) was Empress of Ethiopia from 1916 to 1930. The first female head of an internationally recognized country in Africa in the 19th and 20th centuries, and the first empress regnant of the Ethiopian Empire, her reign was noted for the reforms of her Regent and designated heir Ras Tafari Makonnen (who succeeded her as Emperor Haile Selassie I), about which she was at best ambivalent and often stridently opposed, due to her staunch conservatism and strong religious devotion. She is the most recent empress regnant in Ethiopian history, and until the 2018 election of Sahle-Work Zewde as president, was the most recent female head of state of Ethiopia.

ゼウディトゥ(Ge'ez: ዘውዲቱ Zäwditu)1876年4月29日〜1930年4月2日は、Zeoditu、Zawditu、Zaudituとも表記され、アスカラ・マリアムAskala Maryamが洗礼名。皇女として生まれ、1916年から1930年までエチオピアの女帝を務めました。19世紀から20世紀にかけて、アフリカで国際的に認知された国の女性初の元首であり、エチオピア帝国の初代女帝でした。


Baptised as Askala Maryam ("Askal of Mary," a type of flower), but using the given name Zewditu, the future Empress was the eldest daughter of the then Negus (or King) Menelik of Shewa, the future emperor Menelik II. Zewditu is an Amharic word meaning "the Crown", though it sometimes appears erroneously Anglicized as "Judith", with which it is not cognate. Her mother, Weyziro (Lady) Abechi, was a noblewoman of Wollo and a brief companion of Menelek.

後の女帝は、当時のシェワのネグス(王)・メネリク(後の皇帝メネリク2世)の長女で、アスカラ・マリアム(「マリアのアスカル」、花の一種)という洗礼を受けましたが、ゼウディトゥという名を名乗っていました。Zewdituはアムハラ語で「王冠」を意味しますが、英語では「Judith」と誤って表記されることがありますが、これは同音異義語ではありません。彼女の母親であるアベチ(Weyziro (Lady) Abechi)はウォルロの貴族であり、メネレクの伴侶でした。

Her mother had separated from Menelik when Zewditu was very young, and the future empress was raised by her father and his consort Baffana. Negus Menelik later married Taytu Betul, but had no children by this wife. Menelik had three acknowledged children: Zewditu herself, had a son Asfaw Wossen who died in infancy, and another daughter Shewa Regga, the mother of Lij Iyasu, Menelik's eventual heir. However, the Emperor remained closest to Zewditu, who also had good relations with her stepmother Empress Taytu, and was part of her father's household for most of her life.


In 1886 the ten-year-old Zewditu was married to Ras Araya Selassie Yohannes, son and heir of Emperor Yohannes IV. The marriage was political, having been arranged when Menelik agreed to submit to Yohannes' rule. Yohannes and Menelik eventually fell into conflict again, however, with Menelik launching a rebellion against Yohannes' rule. Zewditu's marriage was childless, being very young during her marriage, although her husband had fathered a son by another woman.


When Araya Selassie died in 1888, she left Mekele and returned to her father's court in Shewa. Despite the hostility between Menelik and Yohannes, Zewditu managed throughout the conflict to maintain good relations with both. In a sign of his high regard and affection for his daughter-in-law, Emperor Yohannes IV sent Zewditu back to Shewa with a large gift of valuable cattle, at a time when relations between him and her father were at a particularly low point.


Zewditu had two further marriages, both brief, before marrying Ras Gugsa Welle. Gugsa Welle was the nephew of Empress Taytu, Zewditu's stepmother. Zewditu had already been on good terms with Taytu, but the establishment of a direct tie between the two helped cement the relationship. Unlike her prior marriages, Zewditu's marriage to Gugsa Welle is thought to have been happy.


Upon the death of Emperor Yohannis IV at the Battle of Metemma against the Mahdists of the Sudan, in the Mahdist War, Negus Menelik of Shewa assumed power and became Emperor of Ethiopia in 1889. This restored the direct male line succession of the dynasty, as Emperor Yohannes's claim to the throne was through a female link to the line. As the daughter of Menelik II, Zewditu would be the last monarch in direct agnatic descent from the Solomonic dynasty. Her successor Haile Selassie was also linked in the female line. Menelik died in 1913, and Lij Iyasu, the son of Zewditu's half-sister Shewa Regga, who had been publicly declared heir apparent in 1909, took the throne.[2] Iyasu considered Zewditu a potential threat to his rule, and exiled her and her husband to the countryside.皇帝ヨハネス4世がスーダンのマフディストとのメテンマの戦いで死亡すると、1889年にシェワのネグス・メネリクが権力を握り、エチオピア皇帝となりました。これにより、ヨハネス皇帝の王位継承権は女系の血筋によるものであったため、王朝の直系男子の継承権が復活しました。メネリク2世の娘であるゼウディトゥは、ソロモン王朝の直系男子の血を引く最後の君主となりました。彼女の後継者であるハイレ・セラシエも女系の血を引いていました。

メネリクは1913年に亡くなり、ゼウディツの異母姉シェワ・レガの息子で、1909年に後継者として公言していたリイ・イヤスが王位に就きました。 イヤスはゼウディツを自分の支配を脅かす存在と考え、彼女と夫を田舎に追放しました。

Due to fears of instability that might be caused, the cabinet of ministers decided not to publicly proclaim the death of Menelik II. As a result, Iyasu was never officially proclaimed as Emperor Iyasu V. However, both Menelik's death and Iyasu's de facto accession were widely known and accepted. The Church authorities, the Lord Regent Ras Tessema, and the ministers agreed that Iyasu's coronation should be postponed until he was a bit older and had taken Holy Communion with his wife, which would make his marriage insoluble in the eyes of the Orthodox Church.



However, Iyasu quickly encountered problems with his rule and he was never crowned. He was widely disliked by the nobility for his unstable behavior, and the church held him in suspicion for his alleged Muslim sympathies. After a troubled few years, Iyasu was removed from power. Zewditu was summoned to the capital, and on 27 September 1916, the Council of State and the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church officially announced the death of Emperor Menelik II and deposed Iyasu in favour of Zewditu.[3] Zewditu's official title was "Queen of Kings" (Negiste Negest), a modification of the traditional title "King of Kings" (Nəgusä Nägäst).

しかし、イヤスの統治にはすぐに問題が生じ、彼は一度も戴冠することができませんでした。彼の不安定な行動は貴族たちに広く嫌われ、教会からはイスラム教に共鳴しているのではないかと疑われていました。数年後、イイヤスは権力の座から降ろされました。1916年9月27日、国家評議会とエチオピア正教テワヘド教会は、皇帝メネリク2世の死を公式に発表し、イイアスを退位させてゼウディトゥを擁立しました。 ゼウディトゥの正式な称号は、伝統的な称号である「王の中の王」(Nəgusä Nägäst)を改めた「王の女王」(Negiste Negest)でした。

Initially, Zewditu was not permitted to exercise power herself. Instead, her cousin Ras Tafari Makonnen was appointed regent, and her father's old loyal general, Fitawrari Hapte Giorgis Dinagde was made commander-in-chief of the army. Ras Tafari was also made heir apparent to Zewditu, for none of her children had survived to adulthood. In 1928, after an attempt to remove Ras Tafari Makonnen from power failed, the Empress was compelled to crown her cousin Negus.


While the conservative Ethiopian aristocracy was generally supportive of Zewditu, it was less enthusiastic about many of her relatives. Zewditu's stepmother and the aunt of her husband, Dowager Empress Taytu Betul, had withdrawn from the capital after Menelik's death, but was still distrusted somewhat due to the evident favoritism she had practiced during the reign of her late husband. In an attempt to limit her influence, the aristocracy arranged for her nephew—Zewditu's husband Ras Gugsa Welle—to be appointed to a remote governorship, removing him from court.

保守的なエチオピアの貴族は、ゼウディトゥ女帝をおおむね支持していましたが、彼女の親族の多くについてはあまり好意的ではありませんでした。Zewdituの継母であり、夫の叔母である太后Taytu Betulは、Menelikの死後、首都から撤退していましたが、亡き夫の治世中に行っていた明らかな寵愛のために、いまだに不信感を抱いていました。そこで貴族たちは、彼女の甥であるゼウディトゥの夫ラス・ググサ・ウェレを遠隔地の総督に任命し、宮廷から追い出すことで、彼女の影響力を抑えようとしました。

This move, while intended as a strike against Taytu rather than against Zewditu, is believed to have upset Zewditu considerably. Zewditu also suffered guilt for taking the throne from Lij Iyasu, whom her father had wanted to succeed him – while she believed that Iyasu's overthrow was necessary, she had admired her father greatly, and was unhappy at having to disobey his wishes. Her separation from her husband and her guilt about Iyasu's overthrow combined to make Zewditu not particularly happy as Empress. Even though he had treated her abominably, she held much personal affection for her nephew Iyasu, and is said to have wept bitterly for him when told that she was being made Empress as her nephew had been excommunicated for apostasy. Increasingly, the Empress retreated from state responsibility into a world of fasting and prayer, whilst the progressive elements that surrounded the heir, Tafari Makonnen, gained in strength and influence at court.


The early period of Zewditu's reign was marked by a war against Lij Iyasu, who had escaped captivity. Backed by his father, Negus Mikael of Wollo, a powerful northern leader, Iyasu attempted to regain the throne. The two failed to effectively coordinate their efforts however, and after some initial victories Iyasu's father was defeated and captured at the Battle of Segale. The Negus was paraded through the streets of Addis Ababa in chains, carrying a rock of repentance on his shoulders, before entering the throne room and kissing the Empress's shoes to beg for her mercy. The heir to the throne, Ras Tafari Makonnen, was not present at this spectacle out of consideration for the feelings of his wife, who was the granddaughter of Negus Mikael.

ゼウディトゥの治世の初期には、捕虜となっていたリイ・イヤスとの戦いがありました。Iyasuは父である北方の有力な指導者WolloのNegus Mikaelの支援を受け、王座の奪還を試みました。しかし、2人の連携はうまくいかず、当初は勝利を収めたものの、セガレの戦いでイヤスの父は敗れて捕らえられました。ニーガスは鎖につながれ、懺悔の石を肩に乗せてアディスアベバの街を練り歩き、その後、玉座の部屋に入り、女帝の靴にキスして慈悲を乞うた。王位継承者であるラス・タファリ・マコネンは、ネガス・ミカエルの孫娘である妻の気持ちを慮って、この光景を見ていない。

Upon hearing of his father's defeat and humiliation, Iyasu himself fled to Afar. After years on the run, Iyasu was later captured by Dejazmach Gugsa Araya Selassie, the son whom Zewditu's first husband had fathered by another woman. Gugsa Araya was rewarded with the title of Ras from his former stepmother, and with Princess Yeshashework Yilma, the niece of Tafari Makonnen, as his bride. When Iyasu was captured, a tearful Empress Zewditu pleaded that he be kept in a special house on the grounds of the palace, where she would see to his care and he could receive religious counsel. She found Ras Tafari and Fitawrari Habte Giyorgis Dinagde to be unbendingly opposed, and so gave up. She did, however, ensure that special favorite foods and a constant supply of clothing and luxuries reached Iyasu at his place of arrest in Sellale.

父の敗北と屈辱を聞き、イヤス自身もアファールに逃亡しました。何年もの逃亡生活の後、彼はZewdituの最初の夫が他の女性との間にもうけた息子であるDejazmach Gugsa Araya Selassieに捕らえられました。ググサ・アラヤは、元継母からラスの称号を与えられ、タファーリ・マコンネンの姪であるイシャーシェワーク・イルマ王女を花嫁として迎えました。イヤスが捕らえられたとき、涙を流したゼウディツ皇后は、宮殿の敷地内にある特別な家にイヤスを置いて、彼女が世話をし、宗教的な助言を受けられるようにしてほしいと懇願しました。しかし、ラス・タファリとフィタウラリ・ハブテ・ギヨルギス・ディナグデが断固として反対したため、彼女は断念した。しかし彼女は、逮捕されたセラーレのイヤスに、特別な好物や、衣類や贅沢品が常に届くようにしました。

As Empress Zewditu's reign progressed, the difference in outlook gradually widened between her and her appointed heir, Ras Tafari Makonnen. Tafari was a moderniser, believing that Ethiopia needed to open itself to the world in order to survive. In this, he had the backing of many younger nobles. Zewditu, however, was a conservative, believing in the preservation of Ethiopian tradition. She had the strong backing of the church in this belief. Slowly, however, Zewditu began to withdraw from active politics, leaving more and more power to Tafari. Under Tafari's direction, Ethiopia entered the League of Nations, and abolished slavery. Zewditu busied herself with religious activities, such as the construction of a number of significant churches.


In 1928 there was a small conservative uprising against Tafari's reforms, but it was unsuccessful. Empress Zewditu was compelled to grant Tafari, who now controlled most of the Ethiopian government, the title of King (Negus). While Negus Tafari remained under the nominal rule of Zewditu (who was still Negeste Negest, i.e. Empress), Tafari was now in effect the ruler of Ethiopia. A number of attempts were made to displace him, but they were all unsuccessful. In 1930, Zewditu's husband Ras Gugsa Welle led a rebellion against Negus Tafari in Begemder, hoping to end the regency in spite of his wife's repeated pleas and orders to desist, but was defeated and killed in battle by the modernised Ethiopian army at the Battle of Anchem on 31 March 1930.


On 2 April 1930, two days after Ras Gugsa Welle was killed in battle, Empress Zewditu died. It is known today that Zewditu suffered from diabetes, and was seriously ill with typhoid, but it is not universally agreed that this was the cause of her death. According to some popular histories, Zewditu died of shock and grief at hearing of her husband's death, but other accounts contradict this, claiming that Zewditu was not informed of the battle's outcome before her sudden death. Some diplomatic sources in Addis Ababa reported at the time that the fever-stricken Empress was immersed in a large container of frigidly cold holy water to cure her of her illness, but that her body went into shock and she died shortly thereafter.

Zewditu was succeeded on the throne by Negus Tafari, who took the name of Emperor Haile Selassie.



                Menelik II
1889 – 1913
      Weyziro Abechi
            Yohannes IV
1837 – 1889
          Gugsa Welle
1875 – 1930
Fourth husband
      Zewditu I
1876 – 1930
  Gwangul Zegeye
Second husband
  Wube Atnaf Seged
Third husband
  Araya Selassie Yohannes
1867 – 1888
First husband


Emperor Tewodros' gold alloyed crown with silver and copper filigree work and glass bead detail was looted by British troops at the siege of Magdala in 1868. It is shown below on exhibition at the Victoria&Albert Museum.