In Turkey, you are greeted by History itself. Antiquity lives in relics and monuments of bygone eras - the antiquity of Homeric Troy, marble of Greek temples, majestic Roman amphitheaters, paintings of ancient Christian churches and cathedrals of Byzantium and minarets of mosques - all this is Turkey's past, amazing and bewitching.
Southeast Anatolia was inhabited already in the Paleolithic. The first settlements date back to 7000-6500. BC. The discovery of the ancient settlement of Chatal-Huyuk (6500-5500 BC) made it possible to understand how people lived in the Neolithic era. Ceramics and bronze were widely used in everyday life. As excavations in Troy have shown, the Copper Age began around the 3rd millennium BC.
ミタンニとヒッタイト（紀元前II千年紀初期-紀元前XII世紀）Mitanni and Hittites
At the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC. the regions of Asia Minor and the Armenian Highlands were inhabited by different tribes, in particular the Hurrians and Hatti. The penetration of the Indo-European tribe of the Hittites into these lands (whose name was apparently borrowed from their predecessors - the Hatti, i.e. the Proto-Hittites) contributed to the consolidation of new ethnic formations in this region. One of them was the Mitanni ethnic community. In the XVI-XV centuries. BC.
The proto-state of Mitanni, which was formed on the Hurrian ethno basis and included a lot (both from the Semitic-Amorite and from the Indo-European culture), began to develop at a rapid pace. The heyday and success of the Mitanni were based on military strength, primarily on horse-drawn war chariots. Mitanni's entry into the political arena led to a clash of this state with Egypt, whose rulers waged wars with Mitanni with varying success. The Mitannians were able to significantly expand the borders of the state, placing part of Assyria under their rule, ousting the Hittites, and conquering the mountain tribes of the Kutians.
The Mitanni received their first serious defeat at the beginning of the 15th century. BC. - from the Egyptian pharaoh Thutmose III, as a result of which Mitanni becomes a tributary of Egypt. In the second half of the XIV century. BC. the state of Mitanni fell under the rule of the strengthened Hittite power, and in the XIII century. BC. finally collapsed under the blows of Assyria.
Traditionally, the history of the Hittite state is divided into two periods. The ancient Hittite state existed from the 17th to the 16th centuries. BC. In the XIV century. BC. with the decline of the Mitanni, the New Hittite state reached its highest power.
有名なヒッタイト王Suppiluliuma（1380〜1340 BC）の戦争により、ヒッタイトの影響は東地中海全体、エジプトの国境まで広がることができました。ミタンニの征服を成し遂げたのはSuppiluliumであり、彼の後継者であるMursili II（1340〜1305 BC）の下で、ヒッタイトはエーゲ海の海岸に到達しました。ヒッタイトとエジプトの衝突は、王国の権力の終焉の始まりを示しました。 紀元前XIII世紀から強化されたアッシリアはヒッタイトを東から押し始めました。 紀元前XII世紀の初めに地中海の部族の連合（「海の人々」）は、ヒッタイト州を破壊しました。
The wars of the famous Hittite king Suppiluliuma (1380-1340 BC) allowed the influence of the Hittites to spread throughout the Eastern Mediterranean, right up to the borders of Egypt. It was Suppilulium who achieved the conquest of Mitanni, and under his successor Mursili II (1340-1305 BC), the Hittites reached the shores of the Aegean Sea. The clash of the Hittites with Egypt marked the beginning of the end of the kingdom's power. Strengthened Assyria from the XIII century. BC. began to push the Hittites from the east. At the beginning of the XII century. BC. a coalition of Mediterranean tribes ("Sea Peoples") destroyed the Hittite state.
フリジアとリディア（紀元前XII世紀-紀元前VII世紀） Phrygia and Lydia
紀元前XII世紀ヒッタイト王国の崩壊後、紀元前 VIII世紀に小アジアの中央地域には、バルカンから来たトラキアの部族が定住しました。紀元前 VIII世紀フリジア人は、ゴルディオン（ゴルディウス）の首都と団結して王国を設立しました。フリジア王国は小アジアの大部分をカバーしていました。フリジアはミダス王の下で最も強力な州になりました（紀元前725年まで）。フリジア人の首都は、東西ルートとサンガリア川の戦略的交差点に位置するゴルディウスでした。
Since the XII century. BC e. after the fall of the Hittite kingdom, the central regions of Asia Minor were inhabited by Thracian tribes who came from the Balkans. In the VIII century. BC. The Phrygians united and founded their kingdom with the capital at Gordion (Gordius). By the end of the VIII century. BC. The Phrygian kingdom covered most of Asia Minor. Phrygia became the most powerful state under King Midas (by 725 BC). The capital of the Phrygians was Gordius, located at the strategic intersection of the east-west route and the Sangaria River.
In Midas's time, Gordius was a large city, protected by a 6-meter stone wall. Gordia's architecture is reminiscent of ancient Western Anatolian prototypes; its free-standing, gabled-roofed buildings are reminiscent of Bronze Age megaras. Phrygians in the 8th century. BC. made their sculptures slightly imitating oriental prototypes, but performed them in their own special style. The most famous Phrygian works of art are geometric ornaments on pottery, mosaics and wood carvings for furniture. The most interesting industry was metallurgy, the art of which was undoubtedly adopted by the Phrygians from their East Anatolian neighbors.
The Assyrians called Midas Mita, or Mushki. In fact, Mushki is probably a proper name from the language of one of the East Anatolian tribes (known to the Greeks as Moskhoi), conquered by Midas. The Phrygians themselves maintained close relations with the West. According to Greek tradition, Midas married a Greek woman and set up an altar in the sanctuary at Delphi.
The end of the Phrygian kingdom was tragic. It was swept off the face of the earth by nomad Cimmerians from the Caucasus, who marched across the Anatolian plateau with fire and sword. Before that, they attacked Urartu.
In 696 BC. they got to Gordius, plundered him, and left no stone unturned. According to the Greeks, Midas committed suicide out of despair. His grave was discovered in 1957. Samples of royal Phrygian treasures were piled in a wooden burial chamber under a mound: fabrics, richly carved furniture and a mass of bronze, some of which was acquired in such remote places as Urartu. The prominent position that Midas occupied in the ancient world is confirmed by the objects found in the tomb and the size of the gravestone hill, which rises above the cemetery of his predecessors and successors (the height of the hill is 49 m).
After the collapse of the Phrygian state, the role of the Lydians increased - a tribe that lived in the west of Asia Minor, mainly in the valleys of the Germ and Meander rivers, through which the most important trade routes to the East passed. Throwing off the yoke of the Cimmerians, the Lydians conquered the Greek cities on the western coast of Asia Minor, with which they had long maintained trade and cultural ties.
The city of Sardis became the capital of the state, and the ruling dynasty was the Mermnads (kings Gyges, Aliatt, Croesus), who asserted their rule over the entire east of Asia Minor up to the Galis River. The Lydian aristocracy amassed enormous wealth thanks to the significant development of trade relations and the presence of rich gold deposits in the country. It is believed that the Lydians were the first in history to start minting coins (VII century BC).
In 547 BC. the Persian king Cyrus II defeated the Lydian king Croesus, and Lydia became a Persian satrapy. Herodotus tells about this new war in sufficient detail.
At that time, Lydia united the whole of Asia Minor under her rule. Its king Croesus was considered one of the richest and most powerful sovereigns of the East. Confident in his strength, he in 547 BC. invaded Cappadocia, which used to belong to the Medes, and then came under the rule of the Persians. A bloody battle between opponents took place on the Galis River and ended in vain.
Cyrus meeting his army, which consisted mostly of cavalry armed with spears. In order to avoid her rapid attack, Cyrus, on the advice of his commander Harpagus, came up with such a trick: he ordered to release all the camels traveling in the train from their luggage, put soldiers on them and put this peculiar cavalry in front of his army.
When the battle began, the Lydian horses, not accustomed to the sight and smell of camels, fled. The riders were forced to jump off them and fight the enemy on foot. Despite desperate resistance, they were eventually defeated and fled to Sardis.
By the IX century. BC. the east coast of Asia Minor was inhabited by the Ionians, one of the three main Greek tribal groups. Later, the Ionians became impoverished in a political union of 12 cities, which included: Chios, Ephesus, Samos, Miletus, Priene, etc. This union, owing its origin to political and sacred motives, proved its viability in the VI century. BC, when the Ionians began to press the Lydians and Persians. Due to its advantageous position at the crossroads of two main trade routes from north to south and from west to east), the Ionian cities reached economic and cultural flourishing, especially in the 7th-6th centuries. BC. (development of crafts and trade, contacts with oriental culture: writing, literature, philosophy, geometry, calendar, measures of weight).
The rise of the productive forces led to the flourishing of a free, open to the world way of life and the creation of a democratic constitution. The Ionian cities soon became the center of the economic and cultural life of the Greeks, as well as intermediaries in the spread of the cultural influence of the East to Greece. In the VI century. BC. in many Ionian city-states, the democratic form of government, due to frequent internal conflicts and constant threats from the outside, has turned into tyranny.
In the middle of the VI century. BC. the Ionians were brought under the control of the kings of Lydia, but largely retained their autonomy. Later they were subordinated to the Persians. In 500 BC. raised a revolt against the Persian domination, which was suppressed, but served as the beginning of the Greco-Persian wars.
After Asia Minor, Babylon and Egypt were conquered by Cyrus II and Cambyses II, Darius I at the beginning of the 5th century. BC. continued the expansionist policy, during which he faced the confrontation between the Greek cities of Asia Minor and some Greek city-states. Athens' support for the Ionian uprising served as an excuse to bring Persian troops into mainland Greece under the pretext of retaliation.
The Persian campaigns were only partially successful and ended in defeats (492 BC - Athos; 490 BC - Marathon; 480 BC - Thermopylae, Artemisius, Salamis; 479 BC). BC - Plateia, Mikale; 468 BC - Eurymedon; 450 BC - Maliminus and Cyprus). Under the terms of the Peace of Killiev (449-448 BC), the Ionian coastal cities received independence, the Persian king pledged not to interfere in Greek affairs, and the Aegean and the coast of Asia Minor were closed to the Persian-Phoenician fleet. In addition, all trade in the Aegean and Black Seas came under the control of the Greeks.
After the Peloponnesian War, which greatly weakened the Greeks militarily and politically, the Persians in 387 BC. once again received a protectorate over the Greek cities of Asia Minor over the Tsarist world, but forty years later Alexander the Great began his eastern campaign against Persia, which ended in its defeat.
アレキサンダー大王 ALEXANDER THE GREAT
In 334, the Macedonian king Alexander III, who had subdued Greece by that time, led an army of 30 thousand infantry, 5 thousand cavalry and 160 warships against the Persians.
Despite the significant numerical superiority of the Persian army, Alexander's military genius played a role. Having won the first battles in Asia Minor, he then subdued the cities of Phenicia and in 332 BC. captured Egypt. Returning to Syria, he moved to the banks of the Tigris and in the battle of Gaugamela, October 1, 331 BC, inflicted a crushing defeat on the Persians.
After the death of Alexander the Great, his empire split into several independent kingdoms due to the strife of the Diadochi commanders. The largest of these was ruled by the Seleucid dynasty.
ペルガマム、ローマ、ビザンチウム Pergamum, Rome and Byzantium
ペルガマムとローマ PERGAM AND ROMANS
ディアドクのリシマハスとセレウカスの闘いを巧みに利用して、ペルガモンのフィリッター王は紀元前3世紀の初めにペルガモン王国の国家独立を果たしました。ユメネス一世 Eumenes I（263-241 BC）は、紀元前129年にペルガモン王国を海岸とアイダ市（トロイの近く）に拡大しました。ペルガマムは、紀元前133年に亡くなったAttalus IIIの意志に従って、アジアにおけるローマ州の州都になります。
After his death in 1451, Mehmed II came to the throne. The young sultan received an excellent education at the palace school and as governor of Manisa under the guidance of his father. He was undoubtedly more educated than all the other monarchs of the then Europe. Soon the young sultan, he was only 23 years old, began a siege of Constantinople. The most spectacular step of the sultan during the siege was the ingenious crossing of part of his fleet from the Bosphorus to the Golden Horn through the hills, bypassing the chain stretched at the entrance to the bay.
したがって、スルタンの船からの大砲は、内港から街を砲撃する可能性があります。 1453年5月29日、壁が破られ、オスマン帝国の兵士がコンスタンチノープルに侵入しました。十字軍とは異なり、オスマン帝国軍は都市を略奪せず、都市の人口は影響を受けませんでした。 3日目、ファティ・スルタン・メフメド2世はすでにアヤソフィアで祈っていて、コンスタンチノープルを帝国の首都にすることを決めました。
Thus, cannons from the Sultan's ships could shell the city from the inner harbor. On May 29, 1453, a breach was made in the wall, and Ottoman soldiers broke into Constantinople. Unlike the crusaders, the Ottoman army did not plunder the city, the population of the city was not touched. On the third day, Fatih Sultan Mehmed II was already praying in Ayasofia and decided to make Constantinople the capital of the empire.
The power of the Ottoman Empire reached its climax in the middle of the 16th century. The period of the reign of Suleiman I the Magnificent (1520-1566) is considered the Golden Age of the Ottoman Empire. Suleiman I was an educated man who loved music, poetry, nature, and also philosophical discussions. In the 18th century, after the defeat of the Turkish troops near Vienna, the empire began to lose its possessions. At the same time, Western customs began to spread at court. In 1826 the army of the Janissaries was abolished.
1829年にギリシャは独立を獲得しました。その後、ルーマニア、セルビア、モンテネグロが反乱を起こしました。 1878年、小アジアの東部はロシアに、ボスニアとヘルツェゴビナはオーストリアに、キプロスはイギリスに譲渡されました。スルタン アブドルハミド二世は抵抗しましたが、この時点で青年トルコ人運動が発展していました。
In 1829 Greece gained independence. In subsequent years, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro revolted. In 1878 the eastern part of Asia Minor was annexed to Russia, Bosnia and Herzegovina to Austria, and Cyprus was given to Great Britain. Sultan Abdul-Hamid II resisted, but at this time the Young Turks movement developed.